Mass Shootings

The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines a mass shooting as a fatal shooting involving three or more victims.

Mass shootings that occur in public (rather than in a residence) have become increasingly common in the United States. The rise in public mass shootings began in the 1980s and coincides with the rapid increase in the sale of semiautomatic weapons with detachable high-capacity ammunition magazines. As the gun industry sells and markets firearms designed for increased lethality, mass shooters purchase these same weapons to use in their attacks.

VPC research has also found that mass shootings are not infrequently committed by individuals with permits to carry concealed handguns. VPC’s Concealed Carry Killers database has identified at least 37 mass shootings since 2007 involving persons with concealed carry permits.

Fact Sheets
Mass Shootings Involving Concealed Handgun Permit Holders
Mass Shootings in the United States Involving Large Capacity Ammunition Magazines


Mass Shooting Investigative Reports Library

The Violence Policy Center Mass Shooting Investigative Reports Library collects post-shooting investigations conducted by local, state, and federal entities and related court documents. These reports are often exhaustive and rich in detail about the types and sources of firearms and accessories used in the attacks, as well as the motivations of the shooter and the impact of the incidents on affected communities. The reports can help researchers, advocates, and the general public better understand the phenomena of public mass shootings and aid in identifying effective measures to prevent such tragedies.

King Soopers Grocery Store, Boulder, Colorado, March 22, 2021

Affidavit for Arrest Warrant
District Attorney Report on Shooting

Dayton, Ohio, August 4, 2019

Investigative Report

Wal-Mart, El Paso, Texas, August 3, 2019

Superseding Indictment of Shooter

Gilroy Garlic Festival, Gilroy, California, July 28, 2019

District Attorney Report

Virginia Beach Municipal Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, May 31, 2019

Virginia Beach Police Department Final Investigation Summary Report

Borderline Bar & Grill, Thousand Oaks, California, November 7, 2018

District Attorney Report
Ventura County Sheriff Report

Yountville Veteran’s Home, Yountville, California, March 9, 2018

District Attorney Report
California Highway Patrol Report

Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Florida, February 14, 2018

Public Safety Commission Initial Report

First Baptist Church of Sutherland Springs, Sutherland Springs, Texas, November 5, 2017

U.S. Department of Defense Inspector General’s Report

Route 91 Harvest Festival, Las Vegas, Nevada, October 1, 2017

Las Vegas Police Report
FBI Behavioral Unit Report

Baton Rouge Law Enforcement Shooting, Baton Rouge, July 17, 2016

District Attorney Report

Pulse Nightclub, Orlando, Florida, June 12, 2016

FBI Investigative Update Part 1
FBI Investigative Update Part 2

San Bernardino Inland Regional Center, San Bernardino, California, December 2, 2015

U.S. Department of Justice/Police Foundation Incident Review
District Attorney Report

Navy Operational Support Center & Marine Corps Reserve Center, Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 16, 2015

Command Investigation Report

Santa Monica, California, June 7, 2013

District Attorney Report

Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Connecticut, December 14, 2012

State’s Attorney Report
Sandy Hook Advisory Commission Final Report
FBI Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting Report Part 1
FBI Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting Report Part 2

Sikh Temple of Wisconsin, Oak Creek, Wisconsin, August 5, 2012

FBI Report Part 1
FBI Report Part 2
FBI Report Part 3
FBI Report Part 4
FBI Report Part 5
FBI Report Part 6
FBI Report Part 7
FBI Report Part 8
FBI Report Part 9
FBI Report Part 10
FBI Report Part 11
FBI Report Part 12

Century Aurora 16 Movie Theater, Aurora, Colorado, July 20, 2012

City of Aurora After Action Report

Hartford Distributors, Manchester, Connecticut, August 3, 2010

Manchester Police Incident Report

ABB, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, January 7, 2010

St. Louis Police Incident Report

American Civic Association, Binghamton, New York, April 3, 2009

Broome County After Action Report & Improvement Plan

Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, February 14, 2008

Northern Illinois University Incident Report

New Life Church, Arvada, Colorado, December 9, 2007

Arvada Police Department Supplemental Report

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, April 16, 2007

Virginia Tech Review Panel Incident Report

Mail Processing Plant, Goleta, California, January 6, 2006

Santa Barbara Sheriff’s Department Incident Report

Edgewater Technology Inc., Wakefield, Massachusetts, December 26, 2000

Commonwealth v. McDermott, Massachusetts Supreme Court Decision

Xerox, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 2, 1999

State v. Uyesugi, Hawaii Supreme Court Decision

Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado, April 20, 1999

Colorado Governor’s Columbine Review Commission Report 
U.S. Department of Homeland Security Incident Report
Jefferson County Sheriff’s Office Final Report
Jefferson County SWAT Report

Fairchild Air Force Base Hospital, Spokane, Washington, June 20, 1994

Department of the Air Force Report of Investigation

Cleveland Elementary School, Stockton, California, January 17, 1989

California Attorney General Report

Palm Bay Shopping Center, Palm Bay, Florida, April 23, 1987

Cruse v. State, Florida Supreme Court Decision